Photos: African-American Inventors

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Marjorie Joyner

Committed to creating a tool that would preserve curls in women's hair, Marjorie Joyner developed the permanent waving machine, an electric hooded device with 16 slim rods, in 1928. A significant upgrade from the stove-heated curling iron, Joyner's invention was a success in both Black and white salons. She was the first African-American graduate of the A.B. Molar Beauty School and earned her bachelors from Bethune-Cookman College at age 77.

(Photo: Courtesy of US Patent Office)

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