Mirror of Freedom magazine began publication in New York City on Aug. 30, 1838. Published by abolitionist David Ruggles, the magazine is regarded as the first created and published by an African-American. Ruggles, who was born to free parents, is described by historians as a passionate opponent of slavery, as seen through his other anti-slavery publications including Extinguisher, Extinguished (1834) and Abrogation of the Seventh Commandment by the American Churches (1835). A known conductor on the Underground Railroad, he also credited for harboring Frederick Douglas, then a runaway slave, at his home in New York in 1838. Ruggles produced five issues of the periodical between 1838 and 1941.
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